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Pharmacogenetics: Using Genetics to Treat Disease

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This case study investigates the applications of genetics to medicine by exploring one of the first examples of a pharmacogenetic test to enter mainstream clinical practice. Pharmacogenetics examines how genetic variations in an individual correlate with responses to a specific medication in order to develop tailored medical treatments. Through a scenario based on clinical observations, students learn about acute lymphocytic leukemia as well as the wide range of individual responses to the drug used to treat it. Then, students interpret data similar to those initially published in scientific journals in order to construct an understanding of how genetic variation can be used to "tailor" medical care. Lastly, students are asked to apply their understanding of what they have learned in the case by making the appropriate medical recommendation based on a particular individual's genotype.

Material Type: Case Study

Author: Jeanne Ting Chowning

Date created : 15-محرم-1431

A Case of Respiratory Distress

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This clinical case study was developed to engage students by making connections between core concepts in chemistry and physiological processes in the body. The case pertains to medication-induced methemoglobinemia, its etiology, diagnosis, and treatments. Concepts taught by the case include the use of conversion factors, pH, buffering, Le Chatelier's principle, blood chemistry, and respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. The case is suitable for use in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry course or other introductory general chemistry course as well as undergraduate physiology courses. The case also could be adapted for use in undergraduate pharmacology and medicinal chemistry courses.

Material Type: Case Study

Authors: Brahmadeo Dewprashad, Geraldine S. Vaz, Sharon A. Vaz

Date created : 26-محرم-1432

Morgan: A Case of Diabetes:

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This case teaches about the causes and effects of Type 2 diabetes by working through the various options available to a young Native American woman suffering from the disease. The case can be used in a variety of settings, including nutrition classrooms, herbal drug courses, physiology courses, medical schools, nursing schools, pharmacy schools, diabetes workshops, and even weight loss clinics.

Material Type: Case Study

Authors: Clyde Freeman Herreid, Lisa Marie Rubin

Date created : 17-شوال-1422

The Haemophilus Vaccine: A Victory for Immunologic Engineering

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This case study focuses on a young mother whose child attends a day care center where there has been an outbreak of bacterial meningitis. The case explores the need for health care workers to provide relevant medical information and advice to patients, parents, and the community as well as the efficacy of vaccines. The case is designed for students interested in pursuing a career in the health sciences. It may be used in a course in microbiology, immunology, internal medicine, preventive medicine, pediatrics, or primary health care. It might also be useful for nursing and pharmacy students.

Material Type: Case Study

Author: Arne Tarnvik

Date created : 6-شوال-1421

Sometimes Less is Better: The Treatment of Thromboembolism

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"Ed Cramer" is a 47-year-old mechanical engineer who is being treated for venous thromboembolism. He was 45 when he first developed a blood clot in the lower part of his left leg and had to be hospitalized for five days. A year later, he developed a second blood clot, which almost killed him. This case study explores the physiology and treatment of venous thromboembolism, a condition which kills 60,000 people each year in the United States. The case was developed for use in graduate-level courses in medicine and pharmacy.

Material Type: Case Study

Authors: Angela Wisniewski, David Newberger, Thuy N. Nguyen

Date created : 9-ذو القعدة-1424

Are You Blue? What Can You Do?: A Case Study on Treatment Options for Depression

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This case study introduces students to treatment alternatives for depression using a jigsaw method in which groups of students are divided up so that each member of the "home group" becomes the "resident expert" in one of five possible treatment options. Designed for a course in abnormal psychology, this case could be adapted for courses in physiological psychology, pharmacy, and neurobiology.

Material Type: Case Study

Authors: Amy Pettigrew, Kathleen Boje, Linda Walsh, Robert W. Grossman

Date created : 17-شوال-1422

Stem Cells: A Cure or Disease?, Spring 2011

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Have you ever considered going to a pharmacy to order some new cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells) for your ailing heart? It might sound crazy, but recent developments in stem cell science have made this concept not so futuristic. In this course, we will explore the underlying biology behind the idea of using stem cells to treat disease, specifically analyzing the mechanisms that enable a single genome to encode multiple cell states ranging from neurons to fibroblasts to T cells. Overall, we hope to provide a comprehensive overview of this exciting new field of research and its clinical relevance. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Material Type: Full Course, Textbook

Authors: Bilodeau, Steve, Welstead, Grant

Date created : 15-محرم-1431

Tumor Pathophysiology and Transport Phenomena, Fall 2005

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Tumor pathophysiology plays a central role in the growth, metastasis, detection, and treatment of solid tumors. Principles of transport phenomena are applied to develop a quantitative understanding of angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels), blood flow and microcirculation, metabolism and microenvironment, transport and binding of small and large molecules, movement of cancer and immune cells, metastatic process, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, and photodynamic therapy of solid tumors.

Material Type: Full Course, Textbook

Author: Jain, Rakesh

Date created : 20-ذو القعدة-1425

Mechanisms of Drug Actions, Fall 2013

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This course addresses the scientific basis for the development of new drugs. The first half of the semester begins with an overview of the drug discovery process, followed by fundamental principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, and the mechanisms by which drugs cause therapeutic and toxic responses. The second half of the semester applies those principles to case studies and literature discussions of current problems with specific drugs, drug classes, and therapeutic targets.

Material Type: Full Course, Textbook

Authors: Mark Murcko, Steven Tannenbaum

Date created : 19-صفر-1434

Case of Maria: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Therapeutic Relationship

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This case illustrates concepts of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment within the context of a counseling relationship. Its primary purpose is to teach students about the dynamics of the therapeutic relationship, specifically that the relationship is one based on power. The case also covers depression, the diagnosis of psychological disorders, cross cultural issues in counseling, and treatment planning. It could be used in either an introductory psychology course or at a more advanced level such as in an upper-level abnormal psychology course.

Material Type: Case Study

Authors: Janet Morahan-Martin, Stephanie L. Brooke

Date created : 20-ذو القعدة-1425

Principles of Drug Development

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Presents principles underlying preclinical and clinical development of new therapeutic drugs and procedures. Describes and evaluates specific examples, and discusses legal and ethical regulations that apply to drug development.

Material Type: Full Course, Lecture Notes, Syllabus

Author: Charles Flexner

Date created : 13-ربيع الأول-1432

Basic Physics of Nuclear Medicine

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Nuclear Medicine is a fascinating application of nuclear physics. The first ten chapters of this wikibook are intended to support a basic introductory course in an early semester of an undergraduate program. They assume that students have completed decent high school programs in maths and physics and are concurrently taking subjects in the medical sciences. Additional chapters cover more advanced topics in this field. Our focus in this wikibook is the diagnostic application of Nuclear Medicine. Therapeutic applications are considered in a separate wikibook, "Radiation Oncology".

Material Type: Textbook

Author: Kieran Maher

Date created : 22-شوال-1437

Neurobiology

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This course is designed to provide an overview of neurobiology - the biology of our nervous system, from the spinal cord to the brain, and everything in between. After a general introduction and review of pertinent scientific concepts, the student will take a look at cellular signaling, neuron development and plasticity, and the larger systems of neurobiology, such as the sensory system, motor system, and the complex phenomena of memory and emotion. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: demonstrate an understanding of the basic biochemical concepts pertinent to cell biology; identify the basic structure of the nerve cell, the various functions of different components of the nerve cells, and different types of nerve cells; describe various different nervous systems; describe the structure and function of the nervous systems; explain how nerve cells propagate and transmit nervous impulses; describe select diseases caused by malfunctioning or nerve cell death in parts of the nervous system; explain how the nervous system responds to nerve damage or death and therapeutic measures; describe how the nervous system is formed in the embryo and identify the role of various genes and hormonal regulators in that development process; describe the structure and function of the brain and spinal cord; describe the structure and function of the somatic sensory system and the motor system. (Biology 303)

Material Type: Full Course

Date created : 20-ذو الحجة-1432

The 2000-Meter Row: A Case Study in Performance Anxiety

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This case study is based on another case in our collection, The 2000-Meter Row: A Case in Homeostasis, which emphasizes the metabolic, respiratory, and cardiac responses of a young athlete competing in a championship rowing event. In this modified version, the same event is viewed in a new light to explore the psychological ramifications of the stressful sports competition. The case was developed for a mixed undergraduate-graduate course in sport psychology.

Material Type: Case Study

Author: Doug M. Post

Date created : 28-شوال-1423

AH-CHOO!: A Case Study on Climate Change and Allergies

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As the carbon dioxide concentration of our atmosphere increases and our climate warms, the hay fever season seems to be getting longer and more severe. In this case study, students assume the a role of a public relations specialist contracted to communicate the link between climate change and pollen allergies. The activity focuses on the importance of scientific skills to careers outside science, and is most suitable for a lower-level introductory biology, human health, or environmental science course.

Material Type: Case Study

Authors: Juanita Constible, Luke Sandro, Richard E. Lee, Jr.

Date created : 4-محرم-1430

Andrea: The Death of a Diabetic

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In chronicling the life and death of a woman who developed diabetes as a teenager, this case study explores such basic science topics as metabolism, hormones, cell receptors, eye anatomy, and immunology as well as issues in nutrition, exercise, stem cell research, transplantation, drug delivery systems, genetic engineering, and health care. The case has been used in a physiology course as part of a unit on metabolism and hormonal control.

Material Type: Case Study

Author: Clyde Freeman Herreid

Date created : 17-شوال-1422

Bloodline: A Human Genetics Case

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In this "clicker" case, based on a TV drama about a family secret that only knowledge of genetics can solve, students apply what they have read and heard about genetic diseases to determine familial relationships and predict the chance that a family member has inherited a genetic condition. The case is designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but it could be used in any introductory biology course to help students understand and practice applying concepts related to human genetics. In addition, the case could be expanded or modified for use in a genetics or anatomy and physiology class in which human genetics and pedigrees are taught. The case is presented in class using a PowerPoint presentation (~1MB) punctuated by questions that students respond using "clickers" before moving on to the next slide. It could be adapted for use without these technologies.

Material Type: Case Study

Author: Peggy Brickman

Date created : 26-محرم-1432

Breast Cancer Risk: Using Real Medical Histories to Rank Genetic and Environmental Influences

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This case study takes a combined directed and discussion approach to explore risk factors for breast cancer. After a preparatory reading assignment, students assess various medical histories derived from actual women with breast cancer and rank their overall risk for breast cancer and make recommendations for risk reduction. The task is complicated by the different and often combined sources of risk (e.g., reproductive history, hormone replacement therapy and family history). Originally written for an introductory biology course, the case study could easily be adapted for upper division curses in genetics, physiology, or biochemistry to explore the biological and biochemical basis underlying various risk factors.

Material Type: Case Study

Authors: Karen Peterson, MichĽË_le Shuster

Date created : 11-ذو الحجة-1427

But I'm Too Young!: A Case Study of Ovarian Cancer

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In this "clicker case," students are introduced to Abby, a college student who has been diagnosed with ovarian cancer. As they follow Abby's plight, students learn about basic cellular and genetic mechanisms that are responsible for cancer formation, gaining a general understanding of how cells become cancerous through genetic mutations, how cancers can spread throughout the body by metastasizing, and how modern medicine is currently treating patients diagnosed with cancer through surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Developed for use in a large introductory biology course, the case consists of a PowerPoint (~2MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions the students answer using "clickers." The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Material Type: Case Study

Authors: Bruno Borsari, Nancy A. Rice

Date created : 22-ذو الحجة-1428

DISPENSING OF DRUGS IN AMBULATORY CARE

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The terms “Outpatients” or “Ambulatory patients” refers to the patients not admitted in the hospitals.In the modern era the ambulatory care or out patients  setting has taken special important interest among the health care professionals.The easy access of the patient and the convenience of the patient and their satisfaction should be considered.Dispense the medicine with clear instructions to the patients about the use and storage of it.

Material Type: Lesson Plan

Author: Noohu Abdulla khan

Date created : 16-جمادي الآخرة-1438